The Ultimate Pomeranian Guide: What You Need to Know!

pomeranian dog in field

The Pomeranian is an extra-small dog breed known for its long, beautiful fur coat. You’ve seen the YouTube videos and Instagram posts of tiny Pomeranian puppies bubbling with energy, ready to shower their family with affection. An adult-sized Pomeranian isn’t huge, weighing an average of three to seven pounds. They can grow to heights of anywhere between six and eleven inches, as measured from their withers to the floor. There are some Pomeranians that can grow larger and some that are smaller; however, their average sizes still classify them as smaller breed dogs.

It’s hard to imagine anything cuter than a little Pomeranian until you imagine tiny fur ball Pomeranian puppies. Pomeranian puppies can grow to roughly two pounds. That size, coupled with the famed double coat, which can extend over their chest and shoulders, adds to the lovable appeal of Pomeranian puppies. Even when compared to other small-sized dog breeds such as the Chihuahua, Yorkshire Terrier, or Japanese Chin, the adult-sized Pomeranian still comes in on the smaller end. This fact only adds to their popularity among dog lovers who admire small canine breeds.

Pomeranian Personality And Physical Characteristics

What makes the Pomeranian so special is their charming size and bold nature. Not only are they intelligent but they are also alert, lively, and lovable. Medium- and large-breed dogs are typically believed to be the best watchdogs, hyper alert, and ready to protect their owners. Contrary to popular belief, grown poms and Pomeranian puppies are naturally alert, making them excellent watchdogs. They tend to be more vocal and observant, with barking levels near the higher end. Despite their smaller size, they are loyal and you can expect their big attitudes to be just as watchful and protective as larger dogs.

Pomeranians are brave and will not take grief from any other dog, regardless of the size. This means you should keep a close eye on your small pom because they could attempt to bark at, irritate, or aggressively confront a larger dog. Pomeranian puppies, on the other hand, are simply energetic and playful. They may be curious and drawn to other dogs. Pomeranian puppies are so much smaller in stature than adult Pomeranians. If the little puppies play too roughly with larger dogs, this may increase their risk of injury.

Pomeranian puppies are ideal little friends for any dog lover, particularly those looking for a home-friendly companion. Most dogs love to explore and play outside, which is a natural way of getting sufficient exercise. The unique size and personality traits of Pomeranian puppies make them perfect for home play. Although their energy levels are slightly higher than average, they will be just as content lounging with you as they would being playful.

If you do let your Pomeranian puppies outside, you must keep an eye on them. Due to their size, large predatory birds like hawks, eagles, and owls could mistake your grown pom or Pomeranian puppies for a rabbit or furry-tailed squirrel. Other dangerous predators that pose a threat to your small, lovable canine include coyotes, bears, large raccoons, and even foxes. If you let your Pomeranian puppies play at a dog park, keep a close eye on larger dogs, as they may be too aggressive when interacting with your pet. Size and personality add to their list of special qualities; however, when they are outside, watch out for friendliness and energetic moments. Even with their high barking levels, they can be overly friendly to strangers and their size makes them an easy target for dog-nappers. A full-grown Pomeranian is small enough to climb short fencing or squeeze through crevices. Pomeranian puppies are at an even higher risk of escaping your yard. You must stay vigilant in watching them while they play outdoors.

Sometimes, remaining indoors significantly limits the amount of physical activity a medium- or large-sized canine gets. Pomeranian puppies, however, are small enough to get plenty of challenging exercise from the comfort of your home. They also have a higher adaptability level, which means a change in routine will not impact their overall behavior. They are highly affectionate dogs with a low drooling level. No matter how excitable they get, you won’t have to worry about getting your lap soaked with drool.

Every dog loves that daily walk, but on those gloomy, rainy days, going outside might be the last thing you want to do. The Pomeranian has a double, long coat, which adds to their uniqueness. Their fur coat comes in a variety of colors ranging from black and chocolate to orange, red, and blue sable. Most Pomeranian puppies find it unpleasant getting soaked in the rain. Even though that coat is long and thick, they are smaller, which means they are prone to getting cold. On those gloomy days, don’t worry about missing out on the outdoor time because a Pomeranian would be just as happy playing indoors. Even with their long hair, these little ones tend to shed less than the average dog. Keep in mind they do need grooming more than once a month. That fur coat could get matted if special care isn’t taken to keep their hair tangle-free. It’s recommended you develop the habit of brushing their coat, all the way to the skin at least once a week.

Teenage girl with a dog breed Spitz rejoices with a pet at home on the floor.

Origins: The History Of The Pomeranian

The Pomeranian dog breed may be small, but surprisingly, they are the latent cousins to the stronger, more robust ancestors, the Spitz-type dogs of the Arctic. The name Pomeranian was given to these little pooches based on the area of northeastern Europe their cousins came from, Pomerania. This area was located along the border of Poland and Germany. Some examples of other descendants of the Spitz-type dog breeds of the Arctic include the Norwegian Elkhound, the Keeshond, and the Samoyed. These dog breeds are considered relatives to the Pomeranian. Some of the characteristics these dog breeds have in common are their long hair, especially around their neck and shoulders, triangle-shaped pointed ears, and fluffy curved tails.

Historically, the Pomeranian is a relative of the larger sled dogs of the Arctic Circle regions, such as Iceland and the Laplands. The Lapland regions include Finland, northern Norway, and Sweden. Canines that weighed an average of thirty pounds were bred down, resulting in the Pomeranian. However, those Pomeranian puppies were still larger than the smaller types we see today. The English monarchy took a liking to them and bred them smaller until they were at least half the size of their ancestors. The Spitz-type dogs were transformed from the thirty-pound furry canines to approximately twelve-to-fifteen-pound poms. As shown in paintings from the era, the Pomeranian of the 19th century was still slightly larger. It’s believed the small breed Pomeranian puppies made their debut in the royal courts of England thanks to Queen Victoria. She adored the more petite Pomeranian and focused on breeding only smaller ones. This resulted in the cuddly, three-to-seven-pound little furballs we see today. Of course, Pomeranian puppies and adult Pomeranians were not used by the royal court as sled dogs. Due to their precious size and glorious long fur coat, they were adored by the royal class. Pomeranians and Pomeranian puppies were treated well and cared for as show dogs and household canine companions.

There aren’t any recent changes to the Pomeranian dog breed grouping status. They are, however, unofficially labeled as small Spitz-type dogs. As stated by the AKC (American Kennel Club), the Pomeranian breed standard is what gets used when judging these furry pooches at dog show competitions. The AKC officially recognized the Pomeranian as a small breed canine in 1888. It’s believed the Pomeranian is also descended from German Spitz canines. This makes sense since Pomerania is located near Germany. Also, the Keeshond is a distant relative of the Pomeranian and a prime example of a German Spitz-breed dog.

Although the Pomeranian was introduced to the United States around 1892, their official classification wasn’t until the turn of the century. Aside from taking eight years to be officially classified in the US, the main controversy surrounding the Pomeranian stems from breeding practices. Attempting to breed a smaller Pomeranian could result in significant health issues. Pomeranian puppies are already tiny but get stronger and healthier given proper care. Anything smaller than the average three-to-seven-pound range for a Pomeranian increases the risk of it having weakened bones and a sensitive trachea.

Pomeranians Are Intelligent

Pomeranian puppies are popular not just because of their small size and brave personality but also because of their intelligence and trainability. Once you teach them to walk on a leash and obey commands, training becomes easier. They excel at physical activities such as agility work, rallying, and obedience training. It’s important to remain patient with them no matter what you’re teaching. Keeping them from jumping off of furniture can be challenging, but you must be strict about it. They are naturally playful, but jumping off of sofas or off the bed can be dangerous for them. Jumping from such heights could cause them injuries such as joint problems, spinal issues, or even bone fractures.

To measure the Pomeranian’s intelligence, their overall learning capacity is analyzed. The common learning factors taken into account are whether they can understand language commands, retain memory, exhibit emotional intelligence, problem-solve, and display social cognition, awareness, and perception. Understanding language is part of obedience training, so it’s important to start teaching Pomeranian puppies as soon as possible. If your Pomeranian puppies are aware of their surroundings, they can use their senses to better understand their environment, understand social cues, and play brain games — these are all signs of their intelligence. Other signs of intelligent Pomeranian puppies include displaying a range of emotions such as joy, shyness, affection, suspicion, anger, or distress. Since the Pomeranian excels in obedience training and intelligence, they are a great choice as therapy dogs.

Health Conditions that affect the Pomeranian and Pomeranian Puppies

Smaller dogs, particularly those that weigh less than the average pom, are susceptible to health problems, and studies have shown there is a direct correlation between mental and physical health. If you see your Pomeranian puppies are experiencing health problems, this may impact their behavior and overall psychological well-being. If your pom or Pomeranian puppies are stressed, anxious, or depressed, it may impact their eating habits and level of physical activity. Consequently, such stressors can negatively impact their physical health. Knowing what mental or physical health challenges your lovable pet is experiencing is the first step in finding effective treatment methods.

The Psychological Health of the Pomeranian

Pomeranian puppies and their parents are known for having vivacious personalities. However, that can change if they are experiencing psychological distress. If you notice such changes, paying closer attention to your Pomeranian puppy’s mental health can help you find the root cause.

Cognitive Health

One of the character traits of the pom is their attentive nature and intelligence. They are adaptable, easily trained, and make outstanding psychiatric service dogs. Although they are small, they are perfect for retrieving items and providing emotional support. This affection and trainability are highly dependent on their cognitive health.

Seizures, for example, are related to cognitive health and are caused when any brain cells get irritated or damaged. A pom and Pomeranian puppy’s cognitive health and brain function can significantly decline if they endure massive head trauma. For instance, getting attacked by larger animals or being hit in the head can lead to lasting brain damage. Seizures can also be caused by poisons your canine ingested. Place potentially harmful household products in areas where your adorable pom or Pomeranian puppies won’t have access to it. Signs your Pomeranian puppies or little pom might be having a seizure include sudden excessive drooling or foaming at the mouth, fainting, chewing on their tongue, uncontrollable muscle twitching, collapse, sudden stiffness, or randomly falling to their side and paddling their legs. During the seizure, it’s common for them to urinate or defecate and be unaware or confused with their surroundings.

Your Pomeranian puppies or older pom may be at risk of GME, granulomatous meningoencephalitis. This is a dangerous condition that causes irreversible damage to the brain. GME is a progressive inflammatory disease that impacts the central nervous system (CNS). GME is characterized by lesions found in the CNS or different parts of the brain. It affects middle-aged smaller dog breeds, so you don’t have to worry about your Pomeranian puppies. However, their parents are more susceptible, and there is no known cause. There are three syndromes of acute GME: focal GME, multifocal or disseminated GME, and ocular GME. These syndromes are differentiated based on the location of the lesions within the CNS. The lesions commonly found in the cerebrum and brain stem areas are referred to as focal GME. The survival rate for grown poms or Pomeranian puppies diagnosed with focal GME varies as it’s a progressive condition. They may live between three and six months after diagnosis or in some cases just under one year. Multifocal GME is more acute, meaning the Pomeranian survival rate is even lower, estimates range between two and six weeks after diagnosis. Multifocal GME refers to the lesions found around the lower brain stem, cervical spinal cord, and meninges. Ocular GME is when the lesions are found to mainly impact the eyes. This acute form can be static or progressive, affecting one or both eyes. The typical treatment for acute GME varies between corticosteroids and radiation therapy.

Hydrocephalus is another condition that affects Pomeranian puppies and is believed to be hereditary. It’s a disease that commonly impacts dog breeds with more dome-shaped heads. This disease occurs when there is a buildup of cerebrospinal fluid or CSF within the ventricular system. This buildup causes distension or swelling, which occludes or blocks the standard flow of the spinal fluid. CSF fails to absorb into the systemic circulation and builds up in the brain, which is why it’s known as water on the brain. There are two common types of this disease, congenital hydrocephalus, and acquired hydrocephalus. Congenital hydrocephalus can be diagnosed early in Pomeranian puppies, especially if they have a medical history of neonatal infections or if the bones of the skull didn’t fully fuse after birth. Acquired hydrocephalus occurs when other CNS diseases are found, such as brain tumors or cancer. If hemorrhaging or inflammation occurs within the brain, this can also cause blockages within the ventricular system, thus increasing the risk of hydrocephalus. Signs of this disease include seizures, decreased mental acuity (difficulties in learning and training), unexplained circling, spastic gait, loss of coordination, vision impairments, and behavioral changes. It can be difficult to diagnose as the most common sign is learning impairments, which most dog owners don’t take too seriously. Nevertheless, Pomeranian puppies are energetic, friendly, and considered easily trainable animal companions. It’s one reason why the Pomeranian can be considered as a psychiatric service dog. You should be concerned if your Pomeranian puppies show obvious signs of a learning deficit, such as challenges with potty training, listening to commands, or their ability to fetch. Aside from not understanding your directions, seizures can present in variable manners. As aforementioned, the seizures can be sudden, and if they’re a result of hydrocephalus, they can be uncontrollable. Treatment for this cognitive condition involves medications to decrease seizures. In severe neurological cases, the veterinarian may do surgery to implant a shunt. A shunt is used to help reduce pressure on the brain by shunting cerebrospinal fluid away from the blocked ventricular system. Once correct treatment is applied, your Pomeranian puppies can live a fulfilling life. It’s important to note, regular veterinary visits are recommended to ensure the brain isn’t getting waterlogged, meaning the shunt is working to prevent CSF from occluding the ventricular system.


Keeping your Pomeranian puppies and grown poms stress-free is important for their mental health. A dog that is constantly stressed will begin to manifest some negative mental and physical signs. When your pets’ stress isn’t being addressed, you might notice them become whinier or simply withdrawn. They could begin to sleep more than they usually do, eat less, and play less. These are all warning signs your adorable canine isn’t feeling quite themselves. Stress and anxiety with animals can be intertwined. This means any causes of anxiety could also be causing them stress. From leaving them alone to leaving them with strangers, you will notice a change in their behavior.

If leaving them alone is the cause, preparing them a comfortable space with everything they could need is a good start. Sometimes, leaving the lights on will give them a sense of safety, especially on those late nights when you aren’t able to get home before dark. Leaving some background noise going while you are away could also help to lower their stress levels. Silence with only the sounds of cars or people passing by the house could trigger their barking and increase their stress and anxiety.

Sometimes, they might be suffering from undiagnosed diseases or illnesses. If your Pomeranian puppies or adult poms are suffering and you aren’t aware they are sick, their stress levels could be at an all-time high. Making sure they are getting their regular checkups will bring light to any sickness your pom might be enduring. Once you understand the root cause of their stress, developing an effective treatment plan will help. Chronic seizures, for example, can place more stress on your doggo, especially if it’s related to cognitive conditions or brain trauma. Sadly, increased stress can also trigger seizures and vice versa. This can trap your animal companion in a vicious cycle of chronic stress.

Cushing’s disease is something that should be considered in middle-aged or elderly canines that suffer from stress and anxiety. What is Cushing’s disease? Cushing’s disease is a condition in which there is a small tumor that sits either in the pituitary gland or an adrenal gland. According to the AKC, these glands are used to control the stress hormone, cortisol. The pituitary gland is responsible for the ACTH hormone (adrenocorticotrophic), which is connected to how much cortisol the adrenal glands release. If a tumor obstructs or places pressure on either of these glands, it impacts how much cortisol gets released. If too much of it gets released, it will weaken your little doggo’s immune system. It can also damage their kidneys and increase the risk of developing diabetes. Signs of this disease include a sudden increase in appetite, thirst, and urination. Lower energy, sensitive skin, hair loss, increased infections, or a swollen, potbelly look are also symptoms of this illness. The recommended treatments include medication or potential surgery to remove the tumor(s). Routine checkups and veterinarian prescribed medication can help your Pomeranian live a fulfilling life. Helping your canine companion find balance with their stress levels is a must when managing this disease.

There are trusted resources to help lower your pom or Pomeranian puppies’ stress levels. For instance, getting them some calming dog treats and a calming bed can help. These dog snacks and cozy beds offer a deeper sense of comfort for them, in turn, lowering their stress and anxiety.


If your Pomeranian puppies or adult poms experience high bouts of anxiety, it could increase the risk of them suffering a small seizure. The anxiety can be triggered by different things, from being around too many strangers to separation anxiety. For example, if you have a party with many guests, your Pomeranian could become confused and disoriented in the crowd while trying to find you. Separation anxiety is common with many dogs and you may notice it with your Pomeranian whenever you leave. They might begin to whine, follow you, or attempt to exit the home with you. Other signs of an anxious Pomeranian include clinginess and constant barking. As you’re preparing to leave the house, they will pick up on that and may start acting fidgety. Times when you do leave and they are left alone, you might come home to neighbors complaining about the incessant barking, or you might walk into a messy home. This bout of anxiety caused them to act out of character, doing things they normally wouldn’t do if you were home with them. For instance, chewing on things, making a mess, or defecating everywhere could be signs your Pomeranian puppy has separation anxiety.

Aside from unfamiliar crowds or having to leave them alone, there are several root causes for your loveable pooch’s anxiety. Poms and Pomeranian puppies, just like most dogs, have sensitive hearing. Any loud noises could cause fear-based anxiety. For example, fireworks around holidays, sirens of first responder vehicles driving by, or crackling lightning and thunderstorms. These are external causes and completely out of your control. You can still find a way to keep your pom protected from unfamiliar, scary noises. Providing them with a comfortable environment will make all the difference. Avoid kennels or crates, because if you lock them into an enclosed space while you’re gone, this could make their anxiety worse.

To help decrease your Pomeranian’s anxiety, make sure they are getting enough exercise. Walking, playing, and generally running around the home are all effective ways to ensure they have an outlet for their excitability. Developing an exercise regimen for your Pomeranian puppies is another way to combat any anxiety. Getting them started at a younger age will better prepare them for overcoming their bouts of anxiety as they grow. Another way to help your Pomeranian puppies or your fully-grown adopted pom is by providing them with a safe space. This could mean something as simple as getting them a calming bed in which to relax. If you have to leave them alone for part of the day, get them a stuffed animal or something they can snuggle with when they’re feeling overwhelmed.

Providing your grown pom and Pomeranian puppies with a comfortable, safe place to relax isn’t difficult. Some things you should consider are a playpen, a snuggle bed, soft or plush toys, enough food and water, and potty pads. For example, use standard protective pet gates to create an area large enough for your animal companions in which to run around and play. Make sure it’s stocked with all the amenities they could need while you’re at work, school, or just out of the house.

Veterinarian doctor using stethoscope during examination in veterinary clinic. Dog pomeranian Spitz in veterinary clinic

The Physical Health of the Pomeranian

Keeping your friendly pom active is important for their physical and mental well-being. Pomeranian puppies are little energetic fur balls and that energy follows them into adulthood. Ensuring they get enough physical activity is integral to weight management and prevents major health issues down the line. Pomeranian puppies may be prone to health issues as well. The sooner those issues are noticed, the sooner they can be treated. Taking serious steps to prevent problems from arising and treating the health issues that do appear will help prolong the life of your pom.


Your Pomeranian puppies and aging poms can get allergies from a spectrum of different things. Contrary to popular belief, like humans, they too could suffer from seasonal allergies. Potential allergens to keep an eye out for are dust bunnies, pollen, and even the shedding of other animals. Keeping their environment clean and clear of any allergy-causing debris will keep your pom happy.

Skin allergies are also something to look out for. Grooming products, for example, can cause an allergic reaction to the skin. Depending on how sensitive your Pomeranian puppy’s skin is, anything more than warm water could cause some irritation. Skin allergies could present themselves as bumpiness, spotty hair loss, or reddish itchy spots.

Food allergies can lead to some major health issues for your little Pomeranian puppies, especially if you aren’t aware they’re allergic until they experience health problems. A common sign of your Pomeranian suffering from a food allergy could be colitis, a form of diarrhea. If the root cause of the diarrhea isn’t addressed, it could lead to increased stress, weight loss, and digestive irritability. If you suspect their food is the cause, replace their foods with a pom-friendly option and see if anything changes.

Pharyngeal Gag Reflex, also known as reverse sneezing, is common for the pom dog breed. This sneezing reflex occurs when your Pomeranian begins to inhale air too quickly through their nose. This leads to them making sounds like they’re gagging, snorting, or trying to hold in a sneeze. The cause for this gag reflex, or reverse sneeze, varies. Allergies are often the main explanation. Your doggo might have inhaled smoke, pollen, dust, dirt, or other allergens that results in nasal, pharyngeal, or sinus irritation. Possible allergens to consider when your adorable canine begins to sneeze are colognes, perfumes, carpet powders, room sprays, incense smoke, detergents, soaps, and even seasonings used while cooking.

Other possible triggers for this gag reflex include a tooth or gum infection, or an irritated larynx or palate. Such triggers can lead to spasms within the upper throat and sinuses. It’s also not unheard of for your pom or Pomeranian puppies to have occasional episodes of reverse sneezing due to overexcitement. Regardless of the cause, this reaction is not something dog owners have to worry about. If you notice your lovable pet just can’t stop this reflex, there are some of the things you can do to decrease whatever irritation they’re feeling. First, you must get them to feel comfortable, so getting them into some fresh air or in a cool area while trying to soothe them could work, especially in cases where they’re experiencing a sneezing bout due to overexcitement. Another method that can help is holding their nostrils shut, just for a moment, while gently massaging their throat. This can help stifle whatever irritants are bothering them. Getting them to swallow can help calm their throats, so gently blowing in their faces might help. In serious cases, where it’s chronic allergies and your little pom or Pomeranian puppies simply cannot get relief, your veterinarian may suggest an antihistamine.

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Throat Problems

One common health problem the Pomeranian and Pomeranian puppies may be prone to is tracheal collapse. What is the trachea? The trachea is a flexible tube, also known as the windpipe, that is located in the throat. Its main function is to help carry oxygen to the lungs. It’s one of the main parts of the respiratory system. Within the trachea are rings of cartilage that help keep the windpipe open and working properly. Once these rings begin to collapse, less oxygen will travel through. This can lead to your little pom or Pomeranian puppies having difficulty breathing. Tracheal collapse is more prevalent in smaller dogs, aging dogs, or obese dogs. Other smaller breed dogs that this health condition affects include Miniature Poodles, Yorkshire Terriers, Chihuahuas, and Pugs.

Signs your adult Pomeranian or Pomeranian puppies may have a collapsing trachea include wheezing, a dry or hoarse cough, or a cough that sounds like low honking. If they cough whenever you pick them up or when any pressure is applied to their neck, this could also indicate tracheal problems. The cough itself isn’t productive, meaning there is no fluid or phlegm associated with it. They may start to vomit, gag, or retch while coughing. Even simple tasks like drinking water or eating could cause them to cough. Light exercise, extreme temperature changes, or even excitement can trigger coughing.

It’s diagnosed by a veterinarian and is treatable; however, it will last for the rest of your Pomeranian’s life. Keeping them anxiety-free and stress-free is important. They may begin to panic during their coughing fits which will only worsen it. Cough suppressants can be used to help alleviate stress on their throat. Helping them stay calm will help reduce swelling and irritation. Weight gain and obesity can cause worsening damage, including full tracheal collapse. In such severe situations, your small pom or Pomeranian puppies might need to undergo surgery. To avoid severe tracheal damage, weight management is a must.

Gut Health

Part of maintaining excellent gut health in your little poms and Pomeranian puppies is by maintaining a balance between their physical health and nutritional needs. Failing to do so could lead to your small pom becoming obese. Obesity causes a string of health problems in all dogs, more so on the smaller dog breeds. It can cause back pain, digestive disorders, and heart disease along with chronic joint and bone pain.

Parasitic organisms can also put a major strain on your adorable pom and Pomeranian Puppies’ gut health. The most common type of parasites to watch for are worms. For instance, hookworms, roundworms, and whipworms can spread from fecal matter mixed in the soil or contaminated bodies of water. These types of intestinal worms prevent your canine from retaining all the benefits of their nutritional diet. The worms settle within parts of the digestive tract and, if left untreated, begin to rapidly proliferate. Imagine you let your Pomeranian puppies play in puddles at the dog park. If that water was contaminated with worms, it’s likely your puppies are infected. If your little animal companions begin to whine, have low energy, are lethargic, vomit or experience occasional, acute, or chronic colitis, these symptoms could indicate they have worms. An infestation of parasitic worms in the intestines could cause severe blockages, dehydration, and bloody or worm-infested stools. If your Pomeranian puppies develop a pot-bellied appearance, this could indicate an extreme worm burden. Getting regular check-ups from the veterinarian and using proper deworming medications can help decrease the worm burden on your Pomeranian. Depending on how severe the parasitic infection is, your Pomeranian puppies could be at higher risk of suffering long-term gut health issues. This is because they are much smaller and more sensitive to their environment.

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Eye Health

A Pomeranian’s quality of life can be severely impacted by poor eye health. Sadly, eye conditions can be inherited or develop later in life. Some of the common eye health issues a Pomeranian can experience include cataracts, distichiasis, entropion, and glaucoma.

Cataracts typically impact older Pomeranians and are a leading cause of blindness for this breed. Some older canines can adjust well, even as their vision deteriorates. Their other senses will compensate and those adjustments can help them lead a normal life. Unfortunately, Pomeranian puppies aren’t immune from developing cataracts, which can affect them as early as four years old. What exactly are cataracts? Canine cataracts are a result of a cloudy film that settles in the eye’s lenses. Eyes have a mix of fluids in them made up of water and proteins. When those proteins start to collect, they stick together and form a cloudy film. This filmy buildup prevents light from entering the eye which impairs vision. It often causes a whitish, opaque coloration of the eyes. This eye condition is the result of the dog’s lens developing an abnormal lens metabolism, which is normal as they age. However, that slowing eye metabolism will not keep up with processing proteins to keep their eye lenses clear. Cataracts can worsen over time, and it’s not unheard of for them to develop overnight. It can cause partial vision impairment to full blindness. A Pomeranian with cataracts may have developed it because they inherited the condition. This eye condition can also be the result of diabetes mellitus which is why your Pomeranian should have a well-balanced diet to promote healthy blood sugar levels. Diabetes-related cataracts should be concerning because the vision-impairing film can rapidly increase if it’s not addressed right away. Cataracts can also be caused by eye injuries that don’t heal well. Any inflammation caused by the damage to the eye could worsen, causing proteins to build up, leading to cataracts.

According to AKC, it’s completely normal for aging dogs to develop some cloudiness in their eyes. This is referred to as nuclear sclerosis or lenticular sclerosis and it can affect younger dogs, like Pomeranian puppies. Glaucoma is another potential eye health issue for your Pomeranian and this disease has multiple causes. What is canine glaucoma? Glaucoma happens when there’s a rise in eye pressure and this pressure can cause damage to the sensitive structure of the eye. This disease is characterized by internal pressure in the eye which results in damage to the optic nerve and retina. There are two main types of glaucoma — primary glaucoma and secondary glaucoma. However, there is a third type that only affects Pomeranian puppies. Congenital glaucoma can affect your Pomeranian puppies between the ages of three and six months old. It may also develop not too long after birth, sometimes within the first six to eight weeks. Although this ocular disease is rare, it can affect one or both of their eyes. It’s also commonly associated with other eye conditions. Congenital glaucoma is considered to fall under the primary glaucoma type because it’s an inherited trait. Primary glaucoma is usually an inherited condition for some dog breeds whereas secondary glaucoma is caused by other eye diseases. For example, primary glaucoma in your adult Pomeranian could be passed down to the Pomeranian puppies. Secondary glaucoma can develop due to cataracts, eye injuries, inflammation, cancer, or retinal detachment. It can also be a result of lens luxation or subluxation which happens when the lens suddenly changes or shifts position in the eye. Signs of glaucoma in your Pomeranian can include cloudy eye(s) (sometimes with a reddish or bluish tint to that cloudiness), bulging eyes, or reddish irritation in the white of the eye. Your Pomeranian may also experience eye discharge, dilated pupils, increased squinting, or some loss in vision. The diagnosis for glaucoma should be made by a veterinarian or animal ophthalmologist. Treatment varies depending on the type of glaucoma they have. A veterinarian may prescribe medications in mild cases. The next steps would include recommended laser therapy, antibiotic injections, or cyclocryotherapy. If the disease is severe, surgical procedures would be suggested. This may include implants to help with ocular drainage or complete removal of the damaged eye. It’s important to get your Pomeranian puppies checked out by a veterinarian if you suspect any eye issues. If glaucoma affects one of your loveable canine’s eyes, get it treated right away because it could increase the health risk of the second eye.

Distichiasis is a common inherited eyelash disorder that can affect your pom and Pomeranian puppies. It’s an eye condition caused by extra hair growth inside the eyelid. This growth irritates the cornea as it constantly rubs against the surface of the eye. It can be painful and no dog lover wants to watch their Pomeranian puppies whine while constantly rubbing their eyes. Leaving your little doggo to suffer from this uncomfortable, abnormal hair growth can lead to ocular problems like chronic eye pain and corneal ulcers. This disorder is often noticed in younger Pomeranian puppies, but it can impact dogs of all ages. Entropion occurs when the canine’s eyelid begins to grow inward, causing their eyelashes to rub against their cornea. It’s very painful for your doggo and could lead to blindness. The best treatment option for both of these inherited eye conditions is the surgical removal of the hairs rubbing against the eye’s surface.

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Ear Health

According to AKC, as much as twenty percent of dogs develop an ear disease. Ear infections aren’t uncommon among the canine world as dogs are more prone to them than humans. This is due to the shape of their ear canals and sometimes, the shape of their ears. Your little pom is not immune from getting an ear infection. It may happen in one ear or affect both. Pomeranian puppies can also be prone to ear infections. There are three common types of ear infections dogs could be prone to which are otitis externa, otitis media, and otitis interna.

Otitis externa occurs when the cells along the lining of the external part of the ear canal become inflamed. Otitis media is when inflammation and infection affect the middle portion of the ear. Otitis interna occurs when the infection affects the inner ear. Like all dogs, a Pomeranian puppy’s ear canal is vertical, which makes them more likely to get debris, moisture, and wax buildup. Any buildup in their ears could cause irritation and inflammation within that part of the ear canal. When the ears appear to have redness, irritated skin, excessive earwax, fluid discharge, or an off-putting odor, these could be signs of an ear infection or other health issue.

Most ear infections or ear conditions are due to bacterial infections. Bacterial infections can be the result of ear mites or foreign bodies settling in the ear. Other root causes include fungal or yeast infections. Malassezia, for example, can cause ear infections. Malassezia is a type of yeast that can build up on the canine’s skin, causing inflammation. This results in dermatitis, which can affect the sensitive skin of the canine’s ears. If you notice lesions, scaling, or reddish rashes inside or around your pet’s ears, take a closer look. If left untreated, it could result in your little pooch getting an ear infection. Allergies, head trauma, and cancers can also lead to serious ear conditions for your Pomeranian puppies.

If you notice your Pomeranian puppy’s head tipping, tilting, or shaking as if to drain their ears, this could indicate an ear issue. Remember, the ears, nose, and throat are all connected to the sinuses, and failing to take care of an ear condition could lead to sinus problems. Depending on the severity of the ear infection, your adorable Pomeranians may develop balance issues and possible hearing loss. An ear infection will not heal on its own and, if it worsens, could cause damage to the eardrum. It’s recommended you bring your canine family member to the veterinarian if you suspect an ear condition. Treatment options will depend on the type of ear infection. A veterinarian may prescribe either topical or oral medications to heal the ear canal. In severe cases, like a toxic and damaging debris buildup within the inner ear, minor surgery may be suggested.

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Immune Health

Your Pomeranian puppies need to start developing strong immune systems from an early age. Due to the small stature of the pom, their bone density isn’t strong and they may be prone to injury from simple falls. What all pet owners should understand is the immune system and bone health are intertwined. Studies are revealing that certain immune cells have similarities or use the same regulatory cell mechanisms as the bones. If there is a concerning health issue with your Pomeranian puppies’ bone structure or overall bone density, ensuring their immune system is working at optimal levels is important. For example, joint issues such as arthritis or osteoporosis can impact your canine’s immune strength, especially if they’re always in moderate to extreme pain. Whatever medical and supplementary treatments are used, you must take into account their immune health. This could mean including regular vitamin and mineral supplements that support bone health and a strong immune system.

Practicing good dental care is important to a dog’s immune health. A growing pom and Pomeranian puppies are more at risk of developing dental issues, so preventing tartar and plaque buildup is a must. Dental diseases are one of the most common problems in dogs, often impacting their dental health by two years old. Investing in doggy dental bones or a chewable and routinely getting their dental checkup will prevent dental disease. If they begin to experience gum infections or tooth infections, it could lead to other health issues. For example, inflammation in your Pomeranian puppy’s gum line or roots of the teeth keeps their immune system working overtime. If the inflammation is a result of an infection and bacteria spread to the blood, they could develop sepsis or health issues elsewhere in their bodies.

Hypothyroidism is when the thyroid gland does not produce the right hormones the body needs to function properly. The thyroid gland is located in the neck and medical problems will arise if it becomes inflamed, restricted, or shrinks. This disease can cause weight gain. Remember, just being slightly overweight can lead to other health problems for your pom. Helping your Pomeranian puppies develop good habits, like loving to play, exercise, and to enjoy eating the healthy food you give them will have positive, lost-lasting effects on their lives.

Weakened immune systems caused by poor dental health can also complicate diabetes. Hypoglycemia is when there are low blood sugar levels and hyperglycemia is when the blood sugar levels are too high. Finding a balance of blood glucose levels is important for dogs with diabetes. Glucose is one of the main energy sources within the body, and if the levels are too low it could lead to a weakened state. If you notice your once-active Pomeranian puppies or adult poms have low energy, are weak, or are restless, their glucose levels might be too low. Other signs of hypoglycemia include confusion, disorientation, increased anxiety, uncontrollable shivering, blurry vision, heart palpitations, and increased hunger. In Pomeranian puppies and grown pooches with diabetes, the causes of low blood sugar could be due to their medications, metabolic changes, or changes to their diet. Treatment largely depends on the underlying cause.

When hyperglycemia occurs in poms and Pomeranian puppies with diabetes, it means their pancreas may not be able to produce sufficient insulin to help regulate the blood glucose levels. Older dogs, female dogs, and smaller dog breeds are more affected by this health issue. Causes for high blood sugar levels could be related to pancreatitis, hormone imbalance, or an unhealthy diet. Your pooch is at higher risk if they suffer from constant infections such as UTIs (urinary tract infections), gum or teeth infections, or fungal or bacterial infections. If your Pomeranian puppies are predisposed to diabetes or related blood glucose issues, stress-induced hyperglycemia should be a concern. Keeping your canine companion calm and relaxed will have a positive impact on their blood glucose levels. Some of the common signs of hyperglycemia include: depression, cataracts, bloodshot eyes, obesity, excessive hunger or thirst, increased urination, dehydration, enlarged liver, unexpected weight loss, nerve or tissue damage, and delayed wound healing. The treatment for hyperglycemia depends on the root cause. The most common cause is stress, which means finding ways to minimize stress factors for your pet. This could mean introducing a healthy, calming dog treat and making adjustments to their diet. Nutritional planning should include foods that are low in fats and carbohydrates and high in proteins and fiber.

Aging dogs that suffer from Cushing’s disease are prone to a weakened immune system. This disease can make them more vulnerable to bacterial or viral infections. It also increases the time it takes to heal from common maladies. Eliminating immune-related issues is highly dependent on proper treatment. If your Pomeranian is suffering from diabetes, constant infections, stress-induced illness, or poor dental or bone health, it’s recommended you seek help from a veterinarian. They can run the necessary tests to determine what the best treatment plan would be.

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Heart Disease

Coronary issues in smaller canines like the Pomeranian can be life-changing and even fatal. Having an unhealthy diet that causes weight gain or obesity can lead to long-lasting heart damage. Failing to take preventative measures in dental care can also increase the risk of heart infection or disease. According to the World Small Animal Veterinary Association, there are links between dental diseases and heart diseases such as endocarditis. Also known as infective endocarditis, it occurs when another infection somewhere in the Pomeranian’s body begins to spread, reaching the inner lining and cardiopulmonary systems of the heart. Symptoms of heart disease in your pom or Pomeranian puppies include, but aren’t limited to: fever, coughing, low energy, extreme weakness, lethargy, skin discoloration, weight loss, breathing difficulties, gastrointestinal issues, and constant body aches. Medical attention is required to properly treat heart disease like endocarditis. The treatment process will involve intensive care and antibiotic therapies.

It’s important to get your Pomeranian puppies proper healthcare because they could be at higher risk for developing Patent Ductus Arteriosus (PDA). Essentially, a small blood vessel between the pulmonary artery and aorta helps to supply blood to the lungs. Once the Pomeranian puppies are born, they must learn to breathe on their own and strengthen their lungs. The blood running through this vessel will decrease and will completely shut after birth. However, if it fails to shut, too much blood could be carried to the lungs. This causes fluid buildup and will put too much strain on the heart. It will also cause low oxygen in the blood due to irregular blood flow. You should be concerned if you notice your Pomeranian puppies are struggling to breathe from light play, are coughing, have weakened hind leg movement, or begin to lose weight when they should be growing. Treatment depends on how much blood is passing through the PDA blood vessel. If the opening is smaller, it may not require any surgical procedures because your Pomeranian puppies can still be healthy. However, if that opening is too large it could result in severe heart issues and will require surgery to correct. The sooner this condition is noticed, the better. If the surgery is conducted early enough, your Pomeranian puppies can lead a long, fulfilling life. Pomeranian puppies can be as young as eight weeks old to undergo the procedure.

Poms and Pomeranian puppies are also predisposed to develop sick sinus syndrome. The sinus node sends signals to the heart to beat. When there is a disruption in those electrical impulses, the heartbeat slows, fails to contract, and could even stop beating altogether. This slow heartbeat, known as bradycardia, could result in your Pomeranian puppies suddenly collapsing. If you notice your affectionate canine occasionally faints from light to moderate exercise, this heart condition could be the cause. Smaller dog breeds with sick sinus syndrome may also experience a rapid heartbeat — known as tachycardia — in addition to a slow heart rate. Major signs of this heart condition include an overall weakened state and fainting during or after physical activity. Sick sinus syndrome needs a medical diagnosis before treatment options can be presented. Once a veterinarian discovers this heart condition, they will suggest a pacemaker for your dog’s heart. Although it’s an invasive procedure, the reality is, dogs that suffer from this syndrome will require a pacemaker to help regulate the heart rhythms.

Joint Health

Patellar Luxation is a common health issue in smaller dog breeds like the Pomeranian. When the patella, or kneecap, slips out of place or is dislocated from the femur, your dog may not realize it happened. At the onset, it may not be causing them pain. However, if left untreated, it could lead to arthritis, chronic pain, and possibly lameness. Pomeranian puppies and female poms were found to be predisposed to this condition, particularly if they were underweight. Getting it diagnosed early can help prevent permanent damage to your lovable companion’s joints.

According to the Orthopedic Foundation for Animals, Patellar luxation is considered a breed-related trait of which Pomeranian puppies are at a higher risk of inheriting. Although they aren’t born with this condition, their anatomy already has the deformity present and the patella luxation can develop at a young age. Their kneecap will slip from its groove which prevents the leg from bending. It can also cause rubbing or friction between the joint surfaces resulting in arthritis. This joint deformity is one of the leading causes of orthopedic conditions in smaller dogs.

There are two main categories of luxation — medial and lateral. Signs of medial luxation in your Pomeranian puppies can be present as soon as they learn to walk. Their hind leg doesn’t seem to move or function properly. Their gait might seem abnormal and the degree to which their gait is affected will differ. You may notice their leg won’t touch the ground at every step, instead, it will touch the ground every few steps. The direction their paw is pointing can also indicate a patella luxation. If their paws are turned inward, it could result in a bowlegged gait. This inward twist forces your grown pom or Pomeranian puppies to place most of their weight on their front legs. If this is the case, it could cause stress to their other legs, which may result in latent joint issues.

Lateral luxation may appear in your Pomeranian as they age. This condition has similar signs to medial luxation; however, the dog may have more functionality of that leg when compared to medial luxation. You may also notice a knock-knee stance with this condition. It’s important to note that an older Pomeranian may experience this luxation due to minor or severe trauma or from overly-strenuous activity. It should not be ignored. If left untreated, it can worsen, causing lameness. When your canine is unable to stand, exercise, or move at all, it will have adverse health effects.

Patella luxation can be diagnosed by a veterinarian. If you have Pomeranian puppies, getting them examined at a young age is important. Even if they aren’t diagnosed with this joint disease when they are young, maintaining regular checkups is crucial. They may still have been born with the predisposition for luxation and it can manifest later in life. If your canine companion does suffer from this condition or it has led to arthritis, there are some treatment options to help alleviate that pain. Patella luxation and resulting joint pain can be treated with non-steroidal anti-inflammatories. When they do experience chronic pain, giving them a healthy diet is integral to weight management. Weight gain will only worsen their joint problems.

Another common bone and joint issue Pomeranians may be prone to is IVDD or intervertebral disc disease. Also referred to as a slipped disc or herniated disc, this disease happens when the jelly-like cushioning between the dogs’ vertebrae ruptures or slips out of place. This causes the herniated disc to place pressure on the spinal cord. IVDD can affect dogs of all ages and is sometimes caused by jumping or falling from unsafe heights. For example, your Pomeranian puppies can accidentally fall from your sofa, landing in such a way that their spinal cord receives the impact. If you notice your little puppy struggling to move their hind legs, hunching their backs, or simply not wanting to move around, it could indicate a herniated disc. This condition is extremely painful, so don’t be surprised if your Pomeranian cries out and refuses to eat or drink due to the pain. In mild cases, your veterinarian may prescribe medications and rest. If so, providing a comfortable, calming bed is recommended. In extreme cases, surgery may be required to remove the ruptured discs. Being less active and morose is uncharacteristic of Pomeranian puppies and adult Pomeranians. If you notice a lack of appetite or painful whining associated with changes in their back and leg movements, contact a veterinarian as soon as you can.

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Skin And Coat

The Pomeranian dog breed may have a genetic predisposition for skin conditions. If you notice a dull coat or irritated skin on your Pomeranian puppies or adult pom then it requires a closer look. Dull coat, thinning fur, or excessive shedding could all be signs of health issues. If their skin appears inflamed or you notice scaling or rashes, this could indicate a skin infection or internal issue. It may also indicate they have a skin allergy, possibly caused by grooming products. All Pomeranians, including Pomeranian puppies, have long, beautiful fur. This can increase their chances of catching fleas or ticks, which can cause skin allergies such as dermatitis or seborrhea. If you notice their skin looks irritated, reddish, scaly, oily, dry, or they have developed random lesions, it may be a type of seborrhea.

If parasitic organisms make their way into your Pomeranian puppies’ intestines, they could develop a dull coat. One of the main indications of a healthy pooch is the shine, thickness, and texture of the fur coat. If those physical characteristics seem off, determining the root cause and a proper treatment plan can help reverse the effects. If your Pomeranian suffers from hypothyroidism, some of the signs of the condition include dry skin, dry coating, hair loss, and increased susceptibility to skin diseases. Another sign is weight gain, which is why it’s so important that your pom and Pomeranian puppies maintain a consistent, healthy diet. Make sure they’re getting sufficient vitamins and nutrients. Vitamin deficiencies and lack of sufficient protein can cause hair loss.

Alopecia X is a hormone imbalance that causes hair loss and is considered a hereditary trait. It usually affects puppies first, so pay close attention to your Pomeranian puppies’ coat. You might notice them losing fur in patches around their body and tail. In some cases, their skin might darken and develop scaliness. Their coat can also appear wool-like, fuzzy, coarse, and sparse instead of the voluminous, thick fur you would expect of this breed. How is Alopecia X defined? Alopecia X is defined as a hormonal imbalance that causes the hair of the Pomeranian’s body and tail to stop growing. No longer stimulated to grow, your pooch’s fur will begin to look sparse because that fur still naturally sheds. Unfortunately, the hair follicles don’t replace the hairs that are shed. Thus, bald patches appear and over time your Pomeranian puppies may lose all their fur around their body and on their tails. This health condition is considered a variable with no known cause. Not all treatments can work; however, you won’t have to worry about the overall health of your little canine. Alopecia X is not life-threatening and doesn’t require medications to treat. However, it’s understandable that dog owners want their Pomeranian to have that luxurious, healthy coat they’re admired for. Treatments that have worked include hormone medications and supplements, often affecting melatonin levels or adrenal gland secretions. Sometimes, spaying or neutering your Pomeranian could affect their hormone levels and stop Alopecia X in its tracks. There is no universal treatment for this skin condition. Just keep in mind that your Pomeranian puppies and their affected parents can lead a healthy, fulfilling life despite having this medical condition.

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Pomeranian Life Expectancy

Taking every measure to keep your Pomeranian puppies healthy will give them the longevity every dog lover wants. The average life expectancy of a Pomeranian is between twelve and sixteen years. Understanding all the health risks that impact this particular small dog breed will help. Paying special attention to your Pomeranian puppies to ensure they are developing normally will also have a positive impact on their longevity. If a mental or physical health issue should arise, knowing what the root cause is and developing an effective treatment plan will affect their life expectancy. For example, serious dental diseases can shorten their lifespan by several years, but once treated, they can live a long, healthy, and fulfilling life. If your Pomeranian puppies suffer from a neural condition, like GME, their lifespan significantly decreases from years to months — sometimes only weeks — after diagnosis. In these situations, providing your little canine with every possible comfort helps decrease pain and lower stress.

Regardless of the health condition your cute little pom or Pomeranian puppies may be experiencing, keeping their spirits up will affect their psychological health. Improving their living environment by surprising them with a calming cuddle bed will do that for you. Once they are more comfortable, their stress, anxiety, and pain levels are easier to manage. Consider a variety of calming canine products to help your Pomeranian puppies and aging canines live a low-stress, happy life for as long as possible.

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